How to Make a Bibliography - A Handy Guideline

-- Based on the 6th Edition of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

A BIBLIOGRAPHY is a list of sources used by the writer of a research paper, including books, encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, interviews, and electronic media.  All the sources used are listed alphabetically.   
 
NOTE:  Book titles must be either underlined: Ants or italicized: Ants. 

NOTE:  Pay attention to spacing, capitalization and punctuation.

NOTE: When more than one publication location is cited on the title page, the first city should be the one noted on your bibliopgraphy. Place of publication usually includes the Name of the City, and the abbreviation of the State: Greenwood, CT.

NOTE: The information for your bibliography should come from the Title Page of each book, NOT THE COVER, the SPINE or other sources (such as WebCat.)

BOOKS 

ONE AUTHOR 

Overbeck, Cynthia.  Ants.  Minneapolis:  Lerner Publication
        Company, 1982.   

Author's last name, Author's first name.  Title.  Place of publication:  Publisher, copyright date.
 

TWO OR THREE AUTHORS  

Sewell, Barbara and Patrick Lynch.  A First Look at Ants.  New York: 
         Walker & Company, 1992.

First Author's last name, First Author's first name and Full Names of 2nd and 3rd Authors. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, copyright date.
  
MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS

Anderson, Norman D., et al. Ants : using biological indicators to          
        investigate environmental conditions. Raleigh, N.C.: Sci-Link/
        Globe-Net Projects, North Carolina State University, 1999.

Last Name of First Author, First Name of First Author, et al. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

EDITOR  

Brandes, Kathleen, ed.  Vanishing Species.  New York:  Time-Life
        Books, 1976.   

NO AUTHOR or EDITOR 

The Secret World of Ants.  Washington:  National Geographic
        Society, 1978.   

PERIODICAL ARTICLES
(articles from MAGAZINES or  NEWSPAPERS)  

NOTE: The title is in quotation marks, not underlined or italicized. 

Conolley, Steve. "Making a Mountain Out of an Anthill." 
         Scientist Weekly. 12 September 1987:  102-10.   

Author's last name, Author's first name.  "Title of the article."  Name of periodical. Date of the periodical:  page numbers of the article.

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES 

NOTE:  If the encyclopedia arranges articles in alphabetical order, you may omit the volume and page numbers.  

NOTE: If there is no author, list the title first. 

Carlin, Norman F.  "Ants."  The World Book Encyclopedia
        Chicago:  World Book Inc., 1994 ed.   

Author's last name, Author's first name.  "Title of the article."  Name of encyclopedia.  Place of publication:  Publisher, copyright date.

"Ant."  The International Insect Encyclopedia.  Vol.4.  New York: 
        Scholastic Books, 1994.  123-42.   

 "Title of the article."  Name of encyclopedia.  Volume number.  Place of publication:  Publisher, copyright date.  Page numbers.

VIDEO/DVD 

The Life of the Honeybee.  VHS. Encyclopaedia Britannica
         Educational Corporation, 1980.

Title of the Video or DVD. Medium. Publisher/Production company, Copyright date.
 
CD-ROM 

"Common Ant."  Creepy Crawlies.  CD-ROM.  Farnham, England: 
         Media Design Interactive, 1993.

"Title of article, or part." Title of the CD-ROM. Medium. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

ON-LINE DATABASE ARTICLES from an Institution (such as The Dalton School)

Brian, M.V. "Ant.” Access Science. The Dalton School Libraries,
        New York, NY. 06 Jan. 2004 <http://www.accessscience.com/>.         

Author’s name. "Title of article." Name of the database service. Name of Institution, Place of Institution. Access date <URL of database>

NOTE: If there is no author for the article, start the entry with the title.

EBOOK from NETLIBRARY

Hamilton, Ian. Ed. The Oxford Companion To Twentieth-century Poetry in         English, New York: The Oxford University Press, 1996, netLibrary. 5 April         2005. < http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader/>.

Author or Editor. Title. City: Publisher, Copyright Date, netLibrary. Access Date.        <http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader>

WEB PAGES

NOTE: Always try to figure out who the AUTHOR of the web site/page is and where this person got his/her information in order to determine the RELIABILITY of the data.  There are many personal interest pages out there that are not trustworthy.   

NOTE: ALSO, remember to record the DATE that you accessed your materials or when the web site was last updated because on-line information can be changed daily.

NOTE: The standard DATE format for online materials is Date Month. (3 letter abbreviation) Year: 25 Mar. 2004

NOTE: There are many variants in citing different kinds of web sites. Make sure that you consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (REF 808.02 GIB) or check with your teachers and librarians if you are not sure of the citation format.

ENTIRE WEB SITE

AntColony.org. Phillip Pi. Ant Colony Developers Association.
        18 Feb. 2004 <http://www.antcolony.org>.

Title of the site. Name of the author/editor. Publication informaion (sponsoring company, organization, institution, etc.) Date of Access <URL>.

PART/PAGE ON A WEB SITE

"Creature Feature: Ants." Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
       Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 25 Jan. 2004
       <http://www.desertmuseum.org/kids/features_ants.html>.

"Title of the part/page." Name of the entire site. Publication information (sponsoring company, organization, institution, etc.) Date of Access <URL>.

Trager, James C. "An Introduction to Ants (Formicidae.)" Northern
        Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Northern Prairie Wildlife
        Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey. 03 Dec. 2003
        <http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/>. Path: Biological Resources;
        Invertebrates; Species Accounts/Descriptions.

Author. "Title of the part/page." Name of the entire site. Publication information (sponsoring company, organization, institution, etc.) Date of Access <URL or the site address >. Path: (mouse clicks that will take the readers/visitors to the page cited. NOTE: Each step is separated by a semi-colon.)


A SAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The function for a bibliography is to allow your readers to locate the cited entries. Whether they are books, videos, web sites, etc., you need to include the most relevant information that can lead your readers back to the sources you used for your research papers.

NOTE: Pay special attention to the arrangement of entries.  They are alphabetized according to the first letters/words. Articles A, An, The, are ignored.
  Alphabetizataion

Anderson, Norman D., et al. Ants : using biological indicators         
        to investigate environmental conditions. Raleigh, N.C.:         Sci-Link/Globe-Net Projects, North Carolina State         University, 1999. 

Anderson

"Ant."  The International Insect Encyclopedia.  Vol.4.  New         York:  Scholastic Books, 1994.  123-42.   

Ant
AntColony.org. Phillip Pi. Ant Colony Developers
        Association. 18 Feb. 2004 <http://www.antcolony.org>.
AntC

Brandes, Kathleen, ed.  Vanishing Species.  New York:  Time-
        Life Books, 1976.   

Brandes
Brian, M.V. "Ant.” Access Science. The Dalton School         Libraries, New York, NY. 06 Jan. 2004         <http://www.accessscience.com/>. Path: Search         Encyclopedia; type ant; GO. Brian

Carlin, Norman F.  "Ants."  The World Book Encyclopedia.         Chicago:  World Book Inc., 1994 ed.   

Carlin

"Common Ant."  Creepy Crawlies.  CD-ROM.  Farnham,        England:  Media Design Interactive, 1993.   

Common

Conolley, Steve.  "Making a Mountain Out of an Anthill."         Scientist Weekly. 12 September 1987:  102-10.   

Conolley
"Creature Feature: Ants." Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
       Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 25 Jan. 2004
       <http://www.desertmuseum.org/kids/features_ants.html>.
Creature

DiStefano, Vince.  Guidelines for better writing.  [On-line]         Available http://www.usa.net/˜vinced/home/better-
       writing.html, 9 January 1996.   

DiStefano

The Life of the Honeybee.  VHS. Encyclopaedia Britannica
         Educational Corporation, 1980.

Life

Overbeck, Cynthia.  Ants.  Minneapolis:  Lerner Publication        Company, 1982.   

Overbeck

The Secret World of Ants.  Washington:  National Geographic        Society, 1978.   

Secret

Sewell, Barbara and Patrick Lynch.  A First Look at Ants.         
       New York:  Walker & Company, 1992.   

Sewell
Trager, James C. "An Introduction to Ants (Formicidae.)"
        Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Northern         Prairie Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological
        Survey. 03 Dec. 2003 <http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/>.
        Path: Biological Resources; Invertebrates; Species
        Accounts/Descriptions.
Trager

 

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Last updated 04/05/2005